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Hot and clean.
Evaporation boats made from strong metals.

Evaporation boat from PlanseeThermal vacuum evaporation (resistance evaporation) is a coating method used as part of the PVD process (Physical Vapor Deposition). The material that is to form the subsequent layer is heated in a vacuum chamber until it evaporates.

 

 


The vapor formed by the material condenses on the substrate and forms the required layer. Because many coating materials react with water, nitrogen and oxygen, this process is performed in a high vacuum. The high temperatures that are required are generally produced using resistance heaters or, in some cases, induction heaters, electron beams or arcs. Evaporation boats are manufactured from refractory metals such as molybdenum, tungsten or tantalum to help them withstand these high temperatures as well as the chemical aggressions caused by the coating material.


 

Principle of thermal vacuum evaporation

 

In the vacuum evaporation process resistant layers are produced, for example, from aluminum, silver, chromium, titanium nitride or silica. The result: gleaming watches, flawless mirrors and top-quality electronic components. You can be assured of long service lives and a high level of dimensional accuracy: Thanks to our many years of experience, we are able to optimize the material and geometries of our evaporation boats to meet the precise requirements of your processes. We would be very happy to advise you.

Our metals for vacuum evaporation.

We produce boats designed to hold the material for evaporation. These are manufactured from tungsten, molybdenum, molybdenum-lanthanum (ML), molybdenum-yttrium oxide (MY) or tantalum, offer a good level of electrical conductivity and possess low vapor pressures combined with a very high melting point. When powered on, our boats heat the material for evaporation. During this process, the low vapor pressures of our metals ensure that no tungsten, tantalum or molybdenum particles enter the vapor and penetrate the subsequent layer.

 

Tungsten is extremely corrosion-resistant in contact with many molten metals and, with the highest melting point of any metal, offers outstanding heat resistance. We use special dopants such as potassium silicate to make the material even more resistant against both corrosion and deformation.

 

Molybdenum is a particularly stable metal that is also suitable for use at high temperatures. When doped with lanthanum oxide (ML), molybdenum becomes even more ductile and corrosion-resistant. The addition of yttrium oxide (MY) improves the material's machinability.

 

Tantalum has a very low vapor pressure and evaporates extremely slowly. However, the great strength of this material lies in its outstanding resistance to corrosion.

 

We would be delighted to help you choose the right material for you.

Evaporation rates and vapor pressure.

Our materials for evaporation boats have very low evaporation rates at evaporation temperature and an extremely low vapor pressure compared to the coating materials themselves. As a result, no material from the boat ends up in the deposited layer even during long evaporation cycles.

 

Evaporation rate

 

Vapour pressure

 

Specific electrical resistance.

The specific electric resistance is an important factor when determining the evaporation sources.

 

Specific electrical resistance moly, tungsten, tantalum

 

Which boat is right for your coating material?

Are you looking for the right evaporation boat for your coating material? Boats with one plus are suitable for your material. And boats marked with two pluses are particularly highly recommended. Would you like to find out more? Let's talk in person.

 

 

Coating material Density  Melting
point
Boiling
point
Evaporation boat
[g/cm3] [°C] [°C] W Mo Ta
AI 2.7 660 2467 +
AIF3 2.9 1291 N/A ++ ++
AI/1 – 4% Cu 2.7 650 N/A +
AI/0.1 – 2% Si 2.7 640 N/A +
AI/4% Cu/1% Si 2.7 640 N/A +
Ag 10.5 961 2212 ++ ++
As2S3 3.4 300 707 ++
Au 19.3 1063 2966 ++ +
B2O3 2.5 460 2247 ++
BaF2 4.9 1280 2260 ++ ++ ++
BaTiO3 6.0 1600 N/A + +
BeO 3.0 2530 4120 +
Bi 9.8 271 1560 ++ ++ ++
BiF3 5.3 727 900 ++ ++
Bi2O3 8.9 820 1890 + +
CaF2 3.2 1360 2500 ++ ++ ++
CaO 3.3 2580 2850 +
Cd 8.6 321 765 ++ ++ ++
CdSe 5.8 1350 N/A ++ ++
CdS 4.8 1750 1405 ++ ++ ++
CdTe 6.2 1042 N/A ++ ++
CeO2 7.1 2150 N/A ++
CeF3 6.2 1460 1987 ++ ++
Co 8.9 1495 2900 + ++
Cr 7.2 1875 2482 ++
Cr2C3 6.7 1850 3800 +
Cr2O3 5.2 2345 4000 +
Cu 8.9 1083 2595 ++
Cu2O 6.0 1235 1800 +
DyF3 7.5 1155 1900 ++
ErF3 7.8 1144 1920 ++
Er2O3 8.6 2400 N/A +
EuF3 6.7 1280 2270 +
Eu2O3 7.4 2100 N/A +
Fe 7.9 1536 3070 +
Fe2O3 5.3 1594 N/A +
Ga 5.9 30 2403 +
GaAs 5.3 1238 N/A ++
GaP 4.1 1350 N/A ++ ++ ++
Ge 5.4 937 2830 +
GeO2 4.2 1115 N/A ++ ++ ++
HfF2 7.1 1000 N/A ++
HoF3 7.6 1143 1895 ++
In 7.3 156 2000 ++ ++
In/10Sn 7.3 146 1000 +
In2O3 7.2 2200 N/A + +
LaF3 6.0 1495 2400 ++ ++
La2O3 6.5 2260 4200 + +
LiF 2.6 842 1676 ++ ++
LuF3 8.3 1182 2200 ++ ++
Lu2O3 9.4 2400 N/A + ++
Mg 1.7 650 1107 ++ ++ ++
MgF2 3.1 1266 2239 ++
MgO 3.6 2640 3600 +
Mn 7.4 1245 2097 + ++ ++
MnS 4.0 1615 N/A + +
MoO3 4.7 795 1155 ++
MoS2 4.8 1185 N/A ++
Na3AIF6 2.9 1000 N/A ++ ++
Na5AI3F14 3.0 1027 N/A ++ ++
NaF 2.6 988 1695 ++ ++ ++
NdF3 6.5 1377 2400 ++ ++
Nd2O3 7.2 2240 N/A +
Ni 8.9 1453 2732 +
Ni/Cr 7.5-8.5 1500 N/A +
Nb 8.6 2468 4927 +
Nb2O5 4.5 1512 N/A +
Pd 12.0 1552 2927 +
Pt 21.5 1769 3827 +
PrF3 6.3 1399 2255 ++ ++
Pr2O3 7.1 2270 N/A +
Rb 1.5 39 688 +
SmF2 6.6 1306 2323 ++
Sm2O3 7.1 2325 N/A +
ScF3 2.6 1530 1800 ++
Sc2O3 3.9 2400 N/A +
Se 4.8 217 685 + + +
Si 2.3 1410 2355 +
SiO 2.1 1705 1880 ++ ++
Sn 7.3 232 2260 ++ ++
SnO2 6.9 1127 1850 + +
SrF2 4.2 1450 2489 ++ ++
Ta2O5 8.3 1880 N/A +
Te 6.2 450 1390 ++ ++ ++
TbF3 7.2 1172 2280 +
Tb2O3 7.9 2300 N/A + +
ThF4 6.3 1100 1680 ++ ++
Ti 4.5 1668 3260 +
TiO2 4.2 1775 2700 +
TiO 4.9 1750 3000 ++
Ti2O3 4.6 1760 N/A ++
V 6.1 1900 3410 + +
WO3 7.2 1473 N/A ++
Y 4.5 1509 2927 ++
YF3 5.1 1155 2210 ++
YbF3 8.2 1157 2136 ++ ++
Yb2O3 9.2 2346 N/A +
Zn 7.1 420 907 ++ ++ ++
ZnSe 5.4 1526 N/A ++ ++ ++
ZnS 4.1 1850 1665 ++ ++
ZnTe 5.5 1238 N/A ++ ++
Zr 6.5 1852 3578 +
ZrF4 4.4 600 908 ++
ZrO2 5.6 2700 4300 +
ZrO 6.4 2200 N/A ++

Our range of boats.

straight evaporation boat step type evaporation boat non-splash evaporation boat
Straight type Step type Non-splash type
The classic evaporation boat. Economical and of proven quality. The evaporation boats in our step-type series deform less because the steps compensate for thermal expansion due to temperature changes.

The cover stops the coating material from splashing.

 

Which tub is right for your coating material?

Thanks to our wide range of tub designs and coatings, you can be sure that our evaporation boats are right for your application. Do you have any questions? That's not a problem. Just call us.

 

 

Flat tub evaporation boat V-tub evaporation boat Oval tub
Flat tub V tub Oval tub
For materials with high wettability For materials with less wettability For materials whose melts tend to circulate
Sphere tub evaporation boat Heat choke Aluminum coated tub
Sphere tub Heat choke Aluminium coating
For expensive coating materials for gold and silver This design prevents the coating material from creeping up to the clamps
Aluminum oxide protects the boat against particularly aggressive melts
evaporation boat with high capacity tub
High capacity tub
Maximum space for your coating material

Evaporation boats: Our delivery program.

And what else do we have for you?

boat for electron beam evaporationWe supply crucible inserts manufactured from molybdenum, tungsten and tantalum for use in electron beam evaporation. Unlike copper and graphite crucibles, these do not contaminate your evaporation material. We would be happy to optimize the geometry and material composition of our crucibles for use in your coating process.

 

 

 

 

evaporation coilOur tungsten and molybdenum coils are used in electrical resistance evaporation.

A single source for all your needs.

We handle every stage in the manufacture of our products in-house. From the raw materials through to the finished product: including the development of new materials. In this way, we can guarantee that you benefit from the very best quality.

 

Raw material Reduction  Metal powder Mixing Pressing Sintering Forming Heat treatment Machining-Joining-Coating Quality assurance


Raw material
(oxide)


Reduction


Metal
powder


Mixing


Pressing


Sintering


Forming


Heat
treatment


Machining
Joining
Coating


Quality
assurance

Sure and certain.

    Ever since 1921, our customers have been able to rely on PLANSEE as an independent private company. Like us, they place great importance on reliability and continuity – especially when it comes to raw materials procurement. With Global Tungsten & Powders (GTP) and a holding in Molibdenos y Metales (Molymet), the Plansee-Group covers all the stages involved in the processing of tungsten and molybdenum – from powder manufacture through the subsequent powder metallurgy processes and on to the production of semifinished products and customer-specific components.

Get to know us.

Our thermal evaporation specialists are here for you worldwide. Simply choose your country and get to know us better. We're looking forward to your call.


Get to know us.

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